Access Handbook

A Tool to Help Manage Accessibility
of the Built Environment

The Killester College Access Handbook may be downloaded from this link.

1         Introduction

1.1      Purpose of Access Handbook

This Access Handbook has been designed as an internal document for the use of management, maintenance personnel and new staff; and which all staff should be aware of.  The purpose of the access handbook is to provide a simple way of listing and explaining the features and facilities of a building, which must be maintained and/or improved in order to ensure access for everyone.

Management and maintenance personnel can use this handbook to ensure that a high standard of accessibility is maintained throughout day-to-day running of the building.  For all new staff, the access handbook can be a useful document to familiarise them with the building and the structures of their organisation.

The National Disability Authority states, “Good management can improve the accessibility of even a badly designed building” and if management or maintenance personnel use the Access Handbook, this principle will become a reality.  The Access Handbook highlights:

  • Background information on access;
  • How to get to the Killester College of Further Education building using various modes of transport;
  • Areas that need to be kept clear to ensure maximum accessibility;
  • Guidelines for accessible signage;
  • Management responsibilities;
  • How to carry out a Maintenance Audit;
  • Means of escape.

1.2      Why Accessibility?

We live in a diverse society, where social inclusion is becoming a worldwide issue and the demographics are changing; in particular, the population is ageing and there is increased immigration.  A report entitled “2010: A Europe Accessible for All” highlighted that accessibility is a key to autonomy, inclusion and sustainable development (http:/  Sustainability is now high on the agenda for all and accessibility is a major factor in the delivery of a more sustainable environment.  An accessible building has benefits for all.  It is safer, healthier, more comfortable and easily adapted to changing needs.

1.3      Barriers faced by people with disabilities

Everyone requires equal consideration from those who commission, design, construct or manage buildings and the external environment, for example:

  • Someone who is short of breath or has a broken ankle will find stairs difficult or impossible;
  • A smooth circular doorknob will be very difficult to use if a person has poor grip;
  • Street furniture or bollards that are poorly sited and/or do not contrast with the background, are a hazard for people with poor vision;
  • Even a single step can deny entry to a person pulling a suitcase on wheels, or a person using a wheelchair.

1.4      Access and the legislative context

Access varies depending on disability and goes well beyond the physical type alone.  Darcy (1998) has characterised access from four main dimensions:

  1. Physical access, which involves people with physical disabilities requiring the use of wheelchairs or walking aids and requires the provision of, for example, handrails, ramps, lifts and lowered counters;
  2. Sensory access, which involves people with hearing or vision impairment requiring the provision of, for example, tactile markings, signs and labels,

hearing augmentation-listening systems and audio cues for lifts and lights;

  1. Communication access, which involves people who have difficulty with the written word, vision, speech, and language problems;
  2. Cognitive access, which involves people who have impaired awareness, perception, reasoning and judgment.


“There are a number of Acts that provide a legislative framework for organisations to ensure that premises and services comply with minimum accessibility requirements.  These include the Safety Health and Welfare Act 1989, the Building Control Act 1990/2007; the Employment Equality Act 1998/2004, the Equal Status Act 2000/2004, the Disability Act 2005 and Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005.  Also, key national plans such as the Programme for Prosperity and Fairness 2000, and Sustaining Progress 2003 have promoted accessibility.”

1.4.1    The Building Control Act and Part M of the Building Regulations

The Building Control Act of 1990 was fundamental in the introduction of Building Regulations in Ireland.  Accessibility of the built environment for people with disabilities in Ireland is mainly controlled by Part M of the Building Regulations (2000) entitled “Access for People with Disabilities”.  The underlying philosophy of Part M is to ensure that as far as is reasonable and practicable, buildings should be usable by people with disabilities.  A Technical Guidance Document for Part M is also provided in three sections, which include access and use; sanitary conveniences; and audience/spectator facilities.  The first part of section one deals with buildings other than dwellings and the second part of section one deals solely with dwellings.  Areas covered in the document include approach; access; circulation; hotel and guest rooms; and use of facilities in a building.  The Building Regulations (2000) apply to construction of new buildings after 1st January 2001 and any extension work or renovations carried out after this date.  In addition, certain parts of the regulations apply to existing buildings where a material change of use takes place.  Otherwise, the Building Regulations do not apply to buildings constructed prior to 1st June 1992.

1.4.2    The National Disability Strategy and the Disability Act 2005

The National Disability Strategy, which underpins the participation of people with disabilities in society, was launched by the Government on 21 September, 2004.  The Strategy builds on existing policy and legislation including the Employment Equality Act 1998, the Equal Status Act 2000, the Equality Act 2004 and the Education of Persons with Special Educational Needs Act 2004 and the policy of mainstreaming service provision for people with disabilities within the State agencies that provide the service to citizens generally.

Two important measures from the National Disability Strategy are the Disability Act 2005 and the six government Sectoral plans.

The Disability Act places a number of requirements on Public Bodies, including Local Authorities and the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government: The following are the salient provisions:

  • Section 25 requires that Public Bodies ensure that their public buildings are, as far as practicable, made accessible to people with disabilities not later 2015;
  • Section 26 requires that Public Bodies, where practicable and appropriate, ensure their mainstream public services are accessible for people with disabilities, and provide assistance if requested, with Access Officers appointed to co-ordinate arrangements;
  • Section 27 requires that services supplied to Public Bodies are accessible to persons with disabilities, unless it would not be practicable or justifiable on cost grounds or would result in an unreasonable delay;
  • Section 28 requires that Public bodies, as far as practicable, communicates in forms that are accessible;
  • Section 29 requires that heritage sites, to which the public has access, are accessible, as far as practicable, to persons with disabilities;
  • Sections 38, 39 and 40 specify the procedures for complaints and inquiries arising out of failures to implement the provisions of the Act; and
  • Section 47 requires that, in so far as practicable, all reasonable measures are taken to promote and support the employment by Public Bodies of persons with disabilities.

Another principal component of the National Disability Strategy, in terms of delivering services to people with disabilities, is the suite of Sectoral plans to be put into practice by six Ministers and their Government Departments.

These Departments are: Environment, Heritage and Local Government; Health and Children; Social and Family Affairs; Transport; Communications, Marine and Natural Resources; and Enterprise, Trade and Employment.

1.4.3    Universal Design

While legislation provides for minimum standards in accessibility, Universal Design takes this one step further.  Universal Design is the design and composition of an environment so that it can be accessed, understood and used to the greatest extent possible by all people regardless of their age, size, ability or disability.  Everybody is different and there is no ‘average’ person.  As a result, Universal Design will benefit all because people with disabilities, people of small or tall stature, parents with buggies, delivery persons and so forth will have greater access to the built and external environments.


Examples of how to design with Universal Design in mind:

  • If tactile indicators are used on landings and the first and last step in a flight of stairs is clearly marked, a person with impaired vision will find a stairs easier to use;
  • An induction loop fitted in a busy-noisy environment will enhance communication for people with hearing aids;
  • If colour contrast is used on fixtures and fittings and tactile indicators are used on controls (e.g. in lifts) they will be easier to use for people with vision impairments;
  • Clearly legible, well-designed and placed signage will help everyone to find their way around in an unfamiliar building and are vital for people with learning and speech difficulties;
  • A threshold with no step provides access for everyone.

2      Location and Transport

Killester College of Further Education is located at the junction of Collins Avenue East and the Howth Road in KillesterVillage, Dublin 5.

The contact details for Killester College of Further Education are:

2.1      Getting to KillesterCollege of Further Education by Bus

Dublin bus offers many routes that pass close to Killester College of Further Education.  The buses which stop near the college include:

Howth Road (3 mins walk)
29A, 31A, 31B and 32

Collins Avenue (1 min walk)

Malahide Road (10 mins walk)
14, 14C, 15, 27, 27A, 27B and 27X, 42 and 43

For the latest route details and timetable information see  For any additional accessibility requirements contact Dublin Bus Accessibility Officer on (01) 703 3204 or email


2.2      Getting to Killester College of Further Education by DART

The nearest DART stop to Killester College of Further Education is the Killester Station located just off the Howth Road which is approximately five minutes away from the college.  For details of DART timetables please refer to or phone 1850 366222.  To make a query on access for people with disabilities, see or phone 1850 366222.  Please note that if you require assistance to access the DART you have to ring in advance of your journey.

2.3      Getting to the KillesterCollege of Further Education by Taxi

Taxis are available throughout Dublin and can be flagged down on most streets.  The fare varies depending on where you are coming from but a fare from the city centre to the Killester College of Further Education should cost between €15-20.  There are extra charges for additional passengers, luggage, animals (other than a guide dog), time of day, Sundays, and public holidays. All information regarding charges is available from the taxi driver.  Ask the taxi driver to estimate the fare before getting into the car if in doubt.   The following are details of three taxi firms, which operate around Dublin:

  • National Radio Cabs 01- 677-22-22, (advertised as having wheelchair accessible cars)
  • City Cabs 01-8727272

2.4      Getting to Killester College of Further Education by Train

The two main train stations in Dublin are Connolly and Heuston station.

2.4.1    Coming from Connolly Station.

There are a number of ways to get to the Killester College of Further Education from Connolly Station (taxi or Dart) as Connolly station is on the dart line.   A taxi from Connolly station to Killester College of Further Education should cost between €10-15.

2.4.2    Coming from Heuston Station

If you arrive at Heuston station the easiest way to get to Killester College of Further Education is by taxi.   A taxi from Heuston station to Killester College will cost about €15-20.  The Luas also goes to Connolly station and it is possible to get the DART from there (see DART section above).


3      Achieving Best Practice in the Design of KillesterCollege of Further Education

3.1      Introduction

The ensure accessibility of the college is of the highest standard, there are a number of essential criteria that need to be met.  These are highlighted below with a brief description of some of their influencing factors:

  • Management – Access Handbook, access and safety, management responsibilities;
  • External Environment – Car parking, routes, ramps, steps and doors;
  • Vertical and Horizontal Circulation – steps and stairs, lifts, corridors and internal doors;
  • Facilities – reception, toilets, seating areas, changing rooms, restaurants and refreshment machines;
  • Interior Design – lighting, colour and contrast, fixtures;
  • Evacuation – emergency equipment, alarms, signage, evacuation equipment, evacuation plans;
  • Communication Facilities – signage, telephones, tactile features, acoustics.

 3.2      Introduction to the college building and users

 Bright and Di Giulio (2001) describe building types in four distinct building categories/classification of use.  These are complete freedom of movement, controlled entry/freedom of movement, free entry/controlled movement and controlled entry/ controlled movement.  The building category that KillesterCollege would fall into would be free entry/ controlled movement.  This means the building has a main or central entrance but control is needed in order to restrict people from various parts of the building (e.g. offices).

Killester College of Further Education is a centre of learning and is committed to providing education and training of the highest quality.   Inclusion for all within the community is a key goal of KillesterCollege and they have been working to ensure access is mainstreamed for over five years.  The building used by KillesterCollege is over 50 years old.  A number of changes have taken place to ensure accessibility has been considered including the provision of 4 accessible WCs.  This work was completed in consultation with the CRC.  In 2009, KillesterCollege replaced a number of prefabricated buildings at the rear of the building and provided  a new extension with 8 new classrooms.  Accessibility played a big part in the design and construction of the extension and some of the accessibility features that were considered included switches and controls, doors, internal ramps, visual and auditory alarms, signage and toilets.

Currently there are approximately 380 full time students, 80 part time day students and over 700 students participating in evening courses. There are over 90 students enrolled in Killester College receiving learning support including students with disabilities.

3.3      Accessibility Features of the Building

The following is a brief introduction to some of the main accessibility features provided within the college.

Parking bays and external areas: Parking is provided for staff and students adjacent to the main college and external signage is provided upon entry to the car park.  Two dedicated disabled parking bays with appropriate signage are provided in the car park allowing ease of access to the main entrance.  Wheelchair accessible routes are clearly sign posted within the car park.

Main entrance: Access to college is located at ground floor level through sliding glass doors which automatically open. Level access is provided at the main entrance for students and staff (by means of a ramp and steps).  Following recommendations in the access audit the surface finish of the ramp has been modified to improve accessibility.  For students or members of the public entering the building, the porters’ desk and reception is immediately located in the entrance foyer.

Reception:  The main reception is located next to the porters’ office just off the main foyer.  As highlighted above in the introduction the main reception was modified in 2010 to improve accessibility.  A high and low counter and sufficient space in front of the reception is provided in the reception.  Sufficient seating is also provided.

Circulation:  Level access is provided throughout the building and all corridors are approximately 2000mm wide.  There is a slight level change between the old building and the new extension and accessibility has been considered to ensure the ramp is easy to use for all.

Signage: Accessible signage was installed in the college in 2009.  The signage has been designed to meet the requirements of all users and some of the consideration in the design of the signage included Braille, embossed lettering, type of text, arrows, colour and tonal contrast etc.  As part of the way-finding strategy all signs have been carefully located throughout the college.

Accessible WCs: A total of five accessible WCs are provided within the building. Four of these are located at the rear of the building and one is located near the entrance foyer.  Careful consideration has been given to locate the WCs within 50m of any part of the building.

Hearing Enhancement Systems: The college is currently investigating the best solution to installing hearing enhancement systems within the college.  To date a number of meetings have taken place to identify what types of systems should be installed.

Emergency Egress:  As part of the extension to the existing college all emergency exit routes were upgraded.  As a result dedicated routes to assembly points are wheelchair accessible.  Both visual and audible fire alarm systems are also located throughout the building.

 4      Management Responsibility

In order to maximise accessibility for all, management will ensure that:

  • Circulation routes and spaces are kept free of obstruction;
  • Facilities are kept clean and function properly;
  • Spaces primarily intended for people with disabilities, including safety zones and wheelchair accessible toilets, are properly maintained, not used as storage spaces or locked-off during business hours;
  • Safety and orientation features to assist people with disabilities, e.g. colour contrasting door furniture, tactile surfaces on floors and colour contrasting strips, are present and renewed when necessary;
  • Signage is clear, legible and is consistent throughout the building, and is revised after any modification to building use or layout;
  • Staff are aware of how best to facilitate users with disabilities;
  • Carpets and soft furnishings are kept free of dust;
  • Filters are replaced in mechanical ventilation systems;
  • Smoking restrictions are enforced.

Other issues that will be considered by management include:

  • Reviewing the access plan/strategy to ensure positive changes take place on a regular basis.
  • Consultation with users.  This may include:
    • Consulting users throughout the design process of any building works (either on a new building or material changes to an existing building);
    • Consulting users when developing access strategies/plans;
    • Consulting users in the development of any access literature;
    • Getting feedback from users of the building to highlight what worked well and not so well.
  • Publishing information regarding accessibility.  This should highlight where a good level of access has been achieved (either in a new building or following access improvements to an existing building).
  • Providing training for all staff.  Topics to be covered include: disability awareness training, guiding people through the building, sign language, etc.
  • Ensuring all maintenance should also consider accessibility (see above).
  • Considering accessibility from the beginning of all new building designs or extensions.
  • Ensuring all procured services (security, catering etc.) are aware of access policies and procedures and their staff receive the relevant training to undertake their duties.

5      Maintenance Audit

To ensure that the accessibility features of the building (discussed above) are kept up to standard Killester College of Further Education will carry out a maintenance audit on a regular basis.  Killester College of Further Education has developed a maintenance audit checklist based on NDA Guidance and the following sections are covered in that checklist:

5.1      Externally

Killester College of Further Education will check that:

  • Designated parking bays are reserved for the use of drivers and passengers with disabilities and parking restrictions are strictly enforced;
  • Ramps and circulation routes are free from parked bicycles and other obstructions;
  • Circulation routes and escape routes from buildings to places of safety are on safe surfaces, free of obstruction and well lit;
  • Areas being serviced or repaired are adequately protected, and alternative routes are provided as necessary and clearly marked;
  • Route surfaces are well maintained, clean and free of gravel, grit, mud, ice, snow and moss;
  • Battery supplies to platform lifts are permanently charged;
  • Aids to evacuation are in place, clearly visible and access to them kept clear.

5.2      Entrances

Killester College of Further Education will check that:

  • Turning space at the top of ramps is kept free of obstruction;
  • Approach to bells, letterboxes, door handles etc. is free of obstruction;
  • Doors are easy to open and closing devices are set at the minimum force needed to open and shut the door;
  • Entrance lobbies are free of obstruction, both permanent and temporary, e.g. delivered goods.

5.3      Horizontal circulation within the building

Killester College of Further Education will check that:

  • Door mats are recessed (with the top of the mat flush with the floor) and, along with rugs, are securely fixed so as not to cause tripping;
  • Slip resistance of floor finishes is maintained, spillages are cleaned up promptly and appropriate cleaning agents and polishes are used;
  • Worn floor finishes are replaced;
  • Artificial lighting is at adequate levels;
  • Doors are easy to open and door closers are set at the minimum force needed to open and shut the door;
  • Doors are kept closed when not in use;
  • Wheelchair spaces in waiting rooms and elsewhere are kept free of obstruction;
  • Both temporary and permanent circulation routes are free of obstruction, e.g. toolboxes, boxes of files, vending machines, photocopiers;
  • Safety zones are kept free of obstructions;
  • Adequate headroom is maintained throughout the building, with no trailing cables on floors or at heights below 220mm;
  • Approach to and egress from all lifts and stairs are kept free of obstruction.

5.4      Signage

Killester College of Further Education will check that:

  • Signage is clear and legible, and revised on foot of any alterations to building layout;
  • Signs are replaced after redecoration;
  • Bulbs in illuminated signs are replaced when performance is reduced, rather than when they fail;
  • Access to tactile signs is maintained.

5.5      Sanitary facilities

Killester College of Further Education will check that:

  • Toilet transfer areas are kept free of obstruction;
  • Alarm facilities are maintained and any pull cords extend to within 100mm of the floor;
  • Toilets used by people with disabilities are kept particularly clean, as these users depend on the WC surfaces for support;
  • Sanitary disposal bins are provided, emptied regularly and positioned within reach of the toilet.

5.6      Furniture

Killester College of Further Education will check that:

  • Loose furniture and fittings are placed so as not to obstruct circulation routes;
  • Safety zones and emergency escape routes are free of obstacles;
  • Seats have good back and arm support;
  • Storage units are accessible and securely fixed;
  • Items in storage or on furniture are not at risk of being easily knocked over and heavy items are stored at lower levels.

5.7      Communication devices

Killester College of Further Education will check that:

  • Induction and counter loop systems are kept in good working order and their locations indicated;
  • Communications systems (e.g. queuing systems and alarms) are both audio and visual, and in full working order.

5.8      Cleaning and maintenance work

Killester College of Further Education will check that:

  • Cleaning and maintenance work are carried out during off-peak periods or while the building is closed;
  • Wet floors and similar hazards are cordoned off and/or indicated by warning signs;
  • Equipment, trailing cables etc. do not cause obstruction or hazard during cleaning operations;
  • Polish applied to floor surfaces does not reduce slip resistance;
  • Polishing of surfaces does not present glare and reduce contrast;
  • Windows, lamps and lighting diffusers are cleaned regularly;
  • Cleaning agents and applications are non-toxic and air fresheners are not of a type that aggravates respiratory difficulties.

5.9      Staff training

Killester College of Further Education will check that:

  • Everyone understands their role in ensuring that the building operates efficiently, both on a day-to-day basis and in an emergency;
  • Appropriate skills and disability/equality training are included in staff induction training;
  • Training is updated routinely;
  • Contract workers are appraised of their safety duties and responsibilities in advance of commencing any work;
  • High temperature surfaces (e.g. open fires, radiators, portable heaters, hot plates, cookers etc.) are protected;
  • Fire alarms, visual alarm indicators and emergency evacuation equipment and facilities are kept unobstructed; General Staff
  • Both visual and audio fire alarms are operative; Maintenance Staff
  • Hazardous areas, such as plant and machine rooms, are kept locked.

6      Safe Egress for All

Killester College of Further Education is aware of the importance of linking access with safe egress for all.  As a result Killester College considers the needs of all students and staff in relation to developing policies and procedures around egress; staff training; procurement of equipment and testing of emergency equipment.

The following initiatives have taken place within the college in relation to safe egress for all:

  • All fire exits have been modified and upgraded to ensure they are accessible and allow independent access to all assembly points;
  • A number of visual and audible fire alarms have been installed and the college hopes to install additional flashing beacons in all classrooms by the end of 2010.
  • All fire drills consider the needs of people with disabilities and the access officer liaises with students following all fire drills.  The access officer liaises with the Health and safety team and improvements are made as a result.
  • All students are asked if they have any additional special requirements around health and safety as part of the induction process.
  • A new emergency evacuation plan has been developed (see figure below) and this will displayed throughout the  college in the near future.
  • The access officer liaises with students on a regular basis and any health and safety issues are addressed by the access officer and the safety committee as required.


Figure 2 Emergency Evacuation Plan


7      Conclusion

An accessible built environment is a key element for the realisation of a society based on equal rights, and provides its citizens with autonomy and the means to pursue an active social and economic life (EC Group of Experts, 2003).  Lack of access to the built environment is one of the greatest barriers to participation faced by people with disabilities from all manner of activities throughout society.   This handbook has highlighted a broad range of issues that will make Killester College of Further Education more accessible for all its users.


Accessibility of the building will be reviewed every six months or in the light of changes (whichever is sooner) by the access team, to ensure that the building is managed and maintained to the highest possible accessibility standard.  This may lead to the inclusion of further sections to this handbook, relating specifically to the college and its functions.

8      Resources

8.1      Important Websites on Accessibility

  1. The National Disability Authority Homepage.

Links to a number of Irish Disability Organisations.

  2. Technical Guidance Documents for the Building Regulations 2000.
  3. The Institute for Design and Disability Homepage who offer professional services on design for all, disability advocacy and consultancy.
  4. The European Concept for Accessibility Homepage.
  5. European Disability Forum universal access website on disability issues.
  6. The Centre for Universal Design US is a national research, information, and technical assistance centre that evaluates, develops, and promotes universal design in housing, public and commercial facilities, and related products.
  7. The Centre for Universal Design resource page.
  8.   Built environment links
  9. The Centre for Accessible Environments (CAE) is an information provider and a forum for collaborative dialogue between providers and users on how the built environment can best be made or modified to achieve inclusion by design.
  10. The Joseph Rowntree Foundation is one of the largest independent social policy research and development charities in the UK.
  11. The JMU Access Partnership is a not-for-profit pan disability access consultancy (specialising in buildings, transport and the street environment) supported by the Royal National Institute for the Blind.
  12. The Access Association’s aim is to improve access and facilities for people with disabilities and consequently for all people who would benefit from an accessible environment.
  13. Sustainable Design International Limited.

8.2      Literature on accessibility of the built environment

The National Disability Authority (NDA) has published a best practice guideline entitled Building for Everyone, which aims to promote universal access to buildings and the environment.  Building for Everyone (NDA, 2002) shows how to design, make and manage buildings and external environments for the inclusion, access and use of everybody.


Inclusive Buildings: Designing and managing an accessible environment is a CD ROM publication (Bright and Di Giulio, 2002) giving an extensive insight in to how to design and manage the built environment.  The CD is arranged under the following headings: user needs, building categories, functional elements, access audits and way guidance systems.

Universal Design (Goldsmith, 2000) calls on designers and lawmakers to embrace access “for everyone” rather than looking at people with disabilities in isolation.  Goldsmith discusses making buildings safe and convenient for all their users, including people with disabilities and provides a comprehensive list of guidelines for making these buildings accessible.

Access Auditshas been published by the Centre for Accessible Environments (2004) as a guide and checklist for auditing the accessibility of public buildings.  It provides the background data to ensure the auditor understands what details need to be considered in carrying out an audit and illustrates how to carry out an audit.

Building Sight (Barker et al.,1995) published to address the needs of people with vision impairments in the built environment.  It is a handbook of building and interior design solutions to include the needs of vision impaired people and highlights their needs in a simple and practical way.

The Access Manual (Bright and Sawyer, 2004) covers the design, improvement, maintenance and management of accessible environments.  As a building designer or manager, it will show you how to provide and run buildings and services, and employment facilities to enable independent and convenient use by everyone.

The list above only indicates some of the texts that are available for accessibility and the built environment.  The NDA Library has an extensive range of other publications. You can view the NDA library catalogue online at  If you require a book on loan please do not hesitate to contact the NDA Library at 01-6080400.

9      References

Barker, P., Barraick, J. and Wilson, R. (1995) Building Sight.  Royal National Institute for the Blind, London.

Bright, K. and Di Giulio, R. (2002) Inclusive Buildings: Designing and Managing an Accessible Environment.  Blackwell Science, London.

Bright, K. and Sawyer A. (2004) The Access Manual: auditing and managing inclusive built environments.  Blackwell Publishing, London.

Centre for Accessible Environments (2004) Access Audits: A guide and checklists for appraising the accessibility of public buildings.  Centre for Accessible Environments, United Kingdom.

Darcy S. (1998) Anxiety to access: tourism patterns and experiences of NSW people with physical disability.  Tourism NSW, Sydney, Australia.

EC Group of Experts (2003) 2010: A Europe Accessible for All.  European Commission for Employment and Social Affairs, Brussels.

Goldsmith, S. (2000) Universal Design.  Architectural Press, London.

NDA (2002) Building for Everyone.  The National Disability Authority, Dublin.

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